There are several passages in the Hebrew Bible (HB) that mention Leviathan לויתן. These instances possibly parallel sea monster material found in other Ancient Near East (ANE) cultures. There are also several other instances where !yNIT; (tannin) is mentioned which carries the meaning of serpent, dragon, sea monster which may have in some instances conveyed some of the same intended imagery of Leviathan for the original author; however, for the present purpose only the specific usages of the name(s) will be noted.
Leviathan “The Twisting One”
In the HB Leviathan is specifically mentioned in:
Job 3:8, “Let those curse it who curse the Sea, those who are skilled to rouse up Leviathan.” This particular verse, and its context, is examined in the Egyptian literature section of this site.
Job 41:1 “Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook, or press down its tongue with a cord?”
Psalm 74:14, “You crushed the heads of Leviathan; you gave him as food for the creatures of the wilderness.”
Psalm 104:26, “There go the ships, and Leviathan that you formed to sport in it.”
Isaiah 27:1, “On that day the Lord with his cruel and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will kill the dragon that is in the sea.”
Rahab “The Proud One”
Elsewhere in the HB there is also reference to the dragon Rahab. The name Rahab for a dragon or serpent is not mentioned in any extra-biblical texts, but since he is also called “the twisting one” in the HB it may be an alternative name for Leviathan. Hebrew texts that mention Rahab are:
Job 9:13, ““God will not turn back his anger; the helpers of Rahab bowed beneath him.”
Job 26:12, “By his power he stilled the Sea; by his understanding he struck down Rahab.”
Psalms 87:4, “Among those who know me I mention Rahab and Babylon…” While this verse does use the name of Rahab it is possible that this verse reflects a later development in which Rahab became a pseudonym for Egypt and Leviathan for Syria.
Psalms 89:10, “You crushed Rahab like a carcass; you scattered your enemies with your mighty arm.
Isaiah 30:7, “For Egypt’s help is worthless and empty, therefore I have called her, “Rahab who sits still.”
Isaiah 51:9, “…Was it not you who cut Rahab in pieces, who pierced the dragon?”
The parallels and context of the usage of Leviathan and Rahab will be examined in the sections that contain parallel material from ANE countries.
 Francis Brown et al., Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Strong’s, TWOT, and GK references Copyright 2000 by Logos Research Systems, Inc.;, electronic ed.; Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 2000), 1072.
 Unless otherwise stated all Scripture is taken from The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989).
 John Day, Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan (London, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), 99.
 Walter Eichrodt ed., Theology of the Old Testament II (TOTL; Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1967) 114.